Thousands of protestors took to the streets of the capital to show their support for Robinson, who was jailed for contempt of court after live-streaming a video outside Leeds Crown Court last month.
Shocking footage shows protestors chasing police down a street in central London, as officers attempted to fall back to a new position from which to contain the marchers.
Some protestors were shown hitting a police van with torn-down street signs, while traffic cones and other items were thrown at officers.
Scotland Yard said five police officers were injured with five arrests made. An investigation is now underway.
Violent scuffles broke out at today's Tommy Robinson march in London
Police said one person was arrested for possession of an offensive weapon, two were arrested for assaults on police officers, one person was arrested for possession of a flare and a fifth person was arrested for criminal damage to a bus.
The injuries suffered by the five officers are not deemed to be "serious", the Met said.
A counter-protest organised by campaign groups Stand Up to Racism and Unite Against Fascisim has also been held in London.
Protestors marched from Trafalgar Square to Whitehall, where far-right Dutch MP Geert Wilders addressed the crowd.
Police and Tommy Robinson supporters have clashed at a rally in London
They chanted slogans and waved banners before listening to speeches by Mr Wilders and Ukip MEP Gerard Batten.
Photos taken later show police and protestors clashing in violent scenes, with scuffles breaking out by metal barriers.
Other photos show police using batons in an attempt to bring crowds under control.
Rows of riot police blocked the gate down the Mall leading to Buckingham Palace where the Royal Family gathered on the balcony after celebrating Trooping the Colour just hours before.
Tommy Robinson rally: Protestors have scuffled with police in London
Dozens of supporters crowded on to an open-top Megabus sightseeing vehicle waving flags, while one supporter posed on the roof in a Donald Trump mask.
By 6pm, officers had removed protesters from the bus and had kettled many of the remaining protesters on the traffic island overhead.
Other Robinson supporters crowded on to the steps of Nelson's Column and continued to chant slogans.
Officers later said the demonstration had ended at 5pm.