U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan..
Tyler Hicks/The New York Times
A bleak Ghazni Province seems to offer little, but a Pentagon study says it may have among the world’s largest deposits of lithium.
Published: June 13, 2010
WASHINGTON — The United States has discovered nearly $1 trillion in untapped mineral deposits in Afghanistan
far beyond any previously known reserves and enough to fundamentally
alter the Afghan economy and perhaps the Afghan war itself, according to
senior American government officials.
Notes from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and other areas of conflict in the post-9/11 era.
The previously unknown deposits — including huge veins of iron, copper, cobalt, gold and critical industrial metals like lithium
— are so big and include so many minerals that are essential to modern
industry that Afghanistan could eventually be transformed into one of
the most important mining centers in the world, the United States
An internal Pentagon memo, for example, states that Afghanistan could become the “Saudi Arabia of lithium,” a key raw material in the
manufacture of batteries for laptops and BlackBerrys.
The vast scale of Afghanistan’s mineral wealth was discovered by a small team of Pentagon officials and American geologists. The Afghan
government and President Hamid Karzai
were recently briefed, American officials said.
While it could take many years to develop a mining industry, the potential is so great that officials and executives in the industry
believe it could attract heavy investment even before mines are
profitable, providing the possibility of jobs that could distract from
generations of war.
“There is stunning potential here,” Gen. David H. Petraeus
, commander of the United States Central Command, said in
an interview on Saturday. “There are a lot of ifs, of course, but I
think potentially it is hugely significant.”
The value of the newly discovered mineral deposits dwarfs the size of Afghanistan’s existing war-bedraggled economy, which is based largely on
opium production and narcotics trafficking as well as aid from the
United States and other industrialized countries. Afghanistan’s gross
domestic product is only about $12 billion.
“This will become the backbone of the Afghan economy,” said Jalil Jumriany, an adviser to the Afghan minister of mines.
American and Afghan officials agreed to discuss the mineral discoveries at a difficult moment in the war in Afghanistan. The American-led
offensive in Marja in southern Afghanistan has achieved only limited
gains. Meanwhile, charges of corruption and favoritism continue to
plague the Karzai government, and Mr. Karzai seems increasingly
embittered toward the White House.
So the Obama administration is hungry for some positive news to come out of Afghanistan. Yet the American officials also recognize that the
mineral discoveries will almost certainly have a double-edged impact.
Instead of bringing peace, the newfound mineral wealth could lead the Taliban
to battle even more fiercely to regain control of the country.
The corruption that is already rampant in the Karzai government could also be amplified by the new wealth, particularly if a handful of
well-connected oligarchs, some with personal ties to the president, gain
control of the resources. Just last year, Afghanistan’s minister of
mines was accused by American officials of accepting a $30 million bribe
to award China the rights to develop its copper mine. The minister has
since been replaced.
Endless fights could erupt between the central government in Kabul and provincial and tribal leaders in mineral-rich districts. Afghanistan has
a national mining law, written with the help of advisers from the World Bank
but it has never faced a serious challenge.
“No one has tested that law; no one knows how it will stand up in a fight between the central government and the provinces,” observed Paul A. Brinkley
undersecretary of defense for business and leader of the Pentagon team
that discovered the deposits.
At the same time, American officials fear resource-hungry China will try to dominate the development of Afghanistan’s mineral wealth, which
could upset the United States, given its heavy investment in the region.
After winning the bid for its Aynak copper mine in Logar Province,
China clearly wants more, American officials said.
Another complication is that because Afghanistan has never had much heavy industry before, it has little or no history of environmental
protection either. “The big question is, can this be developed in a
responsible way, in a way that is environmentally and socially
responsible?” Mr. Brinkley said. “No one knows how this will work.”
With virtually no mining industry or infrastructure in place today, it will take decades for Afghanistan to exploit its mineral wealth fully.
“This is a country that has no mining culture,” said Jack Medlin, a
geologist in the United States Geological Survey
affairs program. “They’ve had some small artisanal mines, but now there
could be some very, very large mines that will require more than just a
The mineral deposits are scattered throughout the country, including in the southern and eastern regions along the border with Pakistan that
have had some of the most intense combat in the American-led war against
the Taliban insurgency..