Here is the theories to explain cold fusion
Scientists judge generally cold fusion out, but there are several more or less speculative theories that attempt to explain what individual scientists as far back as in 1989.

By Jens Ramskov, Tuesday 17th January 2012 pm. 12:46

The Italian engineer Andrea Rossi have long argued that one can produce cheap energy in a process that converts hydrogen and nickel to copper. The same now researchers from NASA Langley Research Center.

Direct fusion of hydrogen and nickel to copper appears to be impossible. But there may be some detours that could allow anyway. This article outlines some of these theories.

However, it is important to emphasize that none of these theories can be said to have gained wide acceptance in the scientific community, so this article comes both with a recommendation for an open mind to new thoughts and a healthy skepticism about the wilder claims.

Cold fusion from 1989 to 2012
Here is a brief review of the history of cold fusion.

On 23 March 1989 shocked chemists Martin Fleishmann and Stanley Pons of the University of Utah world, as they at a press conference said they had observed that the deuterium atoms merged into helium at a palladium cathode in an electrolysis setup.

Already late in the year, most researchers, however, concluded that it was impossible to repeat the experiment, and that cold fusion did not exist in reality.

Maybe Fleishmann and Pons have been quite so cocksure, but only to have stuck to that they had observed "unexplained nuclear reactions', says Joseph Zadowny from NASA Langley Research Center today.

Despite the fact that the scientific community almost unanimously put cold fusion in the grave, continued individual researchers, however, with experiments. One of these was Francesco Piantelli from the University of Siena in Italy.

He observed on 16 August 1989 an anomalous heat production in an experiment involving hydrogen and nickel.

Piantelli continued his research in the 1990s in collaboration with Sergio Focardi of the University of Bologna and Robeto Habel from the University of Cagliari. They published an article in 1994 entitled Anomalous heat production in Ni-H system.

Francesco Piantelli researcher remains in the subject at the University of Siena. Sergio Focardi is now scientific collaborator of the Italian engineer Andrea Rossi, who is trying to commercialize its own variant of a hydrogen-nickel-energy source.

According to Michael Nelson of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has also in Japan, France, India and to a lesser extent in the U.S. over the past 20 years researching varieties of cold fusion or similar process, known as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR).

That is why cold fusion is impossible according to current physics
It is easier to explain why cold fusion is impossible, than why it is possible.

Cold refers to processes at low temperatures, ie. room temperature or perhaps a few hundred degrees, but in any case far from the extremely high temperatures that exist in the solar interior or in fusion reactors as JET in Oxford and the future ITER reactor in France.

A low temperature means that the kinetic energy of protons is small.

A thermal proton has an energy around 0.025 electron volts. The electric repulsion between a proton and a nickel nucleus with 28 protons gives an energy barrier of 4 mega-electron volts, as it is impossible for a thermal proton to break through.

Therefore, it is interesting
In chemical reactions can typically achieve an energy of a few electron volts. For nuclear reactions measured energy contrast in mega electron volts.

The Swedish physicist Sven Kullander gave a lecture on LENR at Örebro University on 23 November 2011. Of his powerpoint presentation shows that the energy content of oil is 12 kWh / kg (C8H18 + 12.5 O2 is converted to 8CO2 + 9H2O) for hydrogen 40 kWh / kg (2H2 + O2 is converted to 2H2O) and nickel 1.6 million kWh / kg (Ni + p is converted to Cu + 3.4 MeV).

Heavy electrons and slow neutrons
When NASA researchers must explain the Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, inclined to a theory developed by Lewis Larsen, CEO of Lattice Energy LLC, and Allan Widom from Northeastern University in Boston, described in an article in European Physical Journal C.

The theory is based on the electromagnetic radiation with collective effects can result in the formation of a so-called heavy surface plasmon polariton-electron. Joseph Zadowny has a patent application explained in greater detail how this can happen.

The 'heavy' electron and proton can through a process known as inverse betahenfald is converted to a slow neutron and a neutrino. The slow neutron is called the Widom-Larsen theory of an ultra-low-momentum (ULM)-neutron.

The ULM-neutron can be captured in a nickel core. The isotope, which is hereby created, by removal of an electron into copper with an atomic number that is higher.

Widom-Larsen theory describes a process that is very different from the direct fusion of two positively charged nuclei.

Rossi does not agree with NASA researchers
Andrea Rossi claims that the Widom-Larsen theory does not explain his process he describes as the direct capture of protons in the nickel core.

In an article gives Rossi and Focardi some loose comments that there may be a form of shielding of Coulomb potential, which repels the proton from the nickel core. He refers in particular that something similar is described for the capture of protons in lithium and beryllium.

According to Sven Kullander has Hanno Essen, a speculation that the specific plasma effects, known as plasma fillamentation may be an explanation as to reduce the Coulomb repulsion. The two Swedish physicists Sven Kullander and Hanno Essen both have had the opportunity to monitor the Rossis experiments.

Yeong E. Kim of Purdue University have devised an explanation for the Rossis experiments based on a theory based on Bose-Einstein condensates, where protons occur in pairs.


The Engineer (Danish magazine)


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